Spondylolisthesis is the forward displacement of a vetebrae over the another.

Signs and symptoms 

  • back pain at the site of displaced vertebra
  • radicular pain in the legs
  • tingling and numbness
  • weakness in one or both legs
  • Epidural corticosteroid injections, root blocks


  • Traumatic due to fall or RTA
  • Congenital
  • Degenerative due to old age
  • Pathologic due to tumour
How does a bone scan work and what are the situations where a bone scan is suggested?

A bone scan can recognize the relative biologic movement of a bone lesion. Is recommended to screen the skeletal system for metastatic disease, a spinal column for metastatic tumor, disc space infection,  primary bone tumor, or vertebral osteomyelitis.

What structures of the spine cause Pain?

Spine pain can occur from various structures like facet joints, intervertebral discs, Vertebral body, ligaments, nerves, muscles, spinal cord.

What are the causes of acute back Pain?

Acute back pain (< 6 weeks) occurs in high impact injuries such as sports, heavy weight lifting, accident injuries, violent twisting injury to the spine. The vertebra may fracture, joints may be displaced causing painful stiffness. Herniated discs pinch the nerve roots to cause radiating pain to the leg.

When is surgery indicated in Herniated Disc?

Surgery for a disc herniation is shown in cauda equina syndrome, severe pain, progressive neurological deterioration, Instability, failure to change with conservative control.

What causes chronic back Pain?

Chronic back pain ( 6 weeks ) results by overuse injuries, repeated movements that stretch the muscles,  degenerative modifications in the discs, nerve root compression,  vertebral joints, changes in musculoskeletal alignment.

What is the commonest cause of Back Pain?

The most frequent cause of low back pain is often pointed to as easy or routine low back pain. This is diagnosed in the lack of any other identifiable cause. It is usually of short-term duration and arrives on after several activities normally in the young adult group. The pain regularly lasts for a few days and then subsides.

Does all the people with degenerative disc disease get back pain?

No, not all people with degenerative disc disease get back pain. Recent evidence suggests that the principal factor leading to degenerative disc disease is genetic. By the age of 50 years, 90% of MRI scans will show degenerative discs.

What are the key muscles that provide stability to the spine?

The key muscles for spine balance are the abdominal muscles, the spinal extensor muscles (on the back) and the oblique rotator muscles on the sides. It will take 3 months to notify the variation in your back after starting the activities.